U.S. Commercial Expansionist
SOURCE: "A Fair Field and No Favor!" (artist: W.A. Rogers), Harpers Weekly, 18 November 1899; Collection of P.P. Choy.
By the end of the 19th century, European powers and Japan had begun to carve China into their own spheres of interest. In 1899, fearing the United States would be shut out from expanding their trade opportunities, U.S. Secretary of State John Hay urged that all nations be given equal trading and commercial access to China. This became known as the "Open Door" policy. Though U.S. correspondence regarding such a policy was transmitted to the other nations, China was not officially notified of this position.